The distribution of the insect orders with respect to arithmetic mean (± 95 % CI) on the various plant organs showed no significant differences with respect to the Shannon index (A). The number of individuals (B) is distributed across the plant compartments with no significant trend in the orders of Heteroptera and Diptera, whereas a strong tendency to significance can be seen in some hibernation places of Hymenoptera (linear mixed model p < 0.05; DF: 3,4; F-ratio: 2.8; flower head – stem: p = 0.065; flower head – tuft: p = 0.095). Significantly more coleopterans hibernate in tufts compared with flower heads (linear mixed model p < 0.05; DF: 3,376; F-ratio: 3.5; flower head – tuft: p < 0.05, tuft – leaves: p = 0.074). The number of species (C) was not significantly different across plant compartments for Heteroptera and Coleoptera. For Hymenoptera, significantly more species occurred in leaves compared with stems (linear mixed model p = 0.075; DF: 3,173; F-ratio: 2.4; leaves – stem: p < 0.05). For Diptera, a strong trend showed that more individuals hibernated in tufts compared with stems (linear mixed model p < 0.05; DF: 3,76; F-ratio: 2.8; stem – tuft: p = 0.072). Significant differences between the plant compartments within each insect order, as based on Tukey’s HSD post-hoc comparisons after linear mixed models, are indicated by different capital letters (n = 8).

  Part of: Unterweger PA, Klammer J, Unger M, Betz O (2018) Insect hibernation on urban green land: a winter-adapted mowing regime as a management tool for insect conservation. BioRisk 13: 1-29.