BioRisk 4: 407-433, doi: 10.3897/biorisk.4.44
True Bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera). Chapter 9.1
Wolfgang Rabitsch
Abstract The inventory of the alien Heteroptera of Europe includes 16 species alien to Europe, 25 species alien in Europe and 7 cryptogenic species. This is approximately 1.7 % of the Heteroptera species occurring in Europe. Most species belong to Miridae (20 spp.), Tingidae (8 spp.), and Anthocoridae (7 spp.). The rate of introductions has exponentially increased within the 20th century and since 1990 an approximate arrival rate of seven species per decade has been observed. Most of the species alien to Europe are from North America, almost all of the species alien in Europe originate in the Mediterranean region and were translocated to central and northern Europe. Most alien Heteroptera species are known from Central and Western Europe (Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands, Great Britain). Ornamental trade and movement as stowaways with transport vehicles are the major pathways for alien Heteroptera. Most alien Heteroptera colonize habitats under strong human influence, like agricultural, horticultural, and domestic habitats, parks and gardens. A few species prefer woodland including plantations of non-native forest trees. Impacts of alien Heteroptera in Europe are poorly investigated. A few species are considered pests in agriculture, forestry, or on ornamentals. More research is needed for a better understanding of the ecological and economic effects of introduced Heteroptera.