BioRisk 4: 603-668, doi: 10.3897/biorisk.4.50
Lepidoptera. Chapter 11
Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde, David Agassiz, Sylvie Augustin, Jurate De Prins, Willy De Prins, Stanislav Gomboc, Povilas Ivinskis, Ole Karsholt, Athanasios Koutroumpas, Fotini Koutroumpa, Zdeněk Laštůvka, Eduardo Marabuto, Elisenda Olivella, Lukasz Przybylowicz, Alain Roques, Nils Ryrholm, Hana Sefrova, Peter Sima, Ian Sims, Sergey Sinev, Bjarne Skulev, Rumen Tomov, Alberto Zilli, David Lees
Abstract We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna), in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries, Madeira and Azores) 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. The route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confined to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks and gardens. We highlight four species in particular, Diaphania perspectalis, Cacyreus marshalli, Cameraria ohridella and Paysandisia archon, as the most important current economic threats.